VCSELs for Atomic Sensors - Sponsored Whitepaper

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A new generation of small low-power atomic sensors, including clocks, magnetometers, and gyroscopes, is being developed based on recently available MEMS and VCSEL technologies. These sensors rely on spectroscopic interrogation of alkali atoms, typically rubidium or cesium, contained in small vapor cells. The relevant spectroscopic wavelengths (in vacuum) are 894.6 nm (D1) and 852.3 nm (D2) for cesium, and 795.0 nm (D1) and 780.2 nm (D2) for rubidium. The D1 wavelengths are either preferred or required, depending on the application, and vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) are preferred optical sources because of their low power consumption and circular output beam.
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